海上的救生艇

时间:2018.01.11     字体:     分享到:

Lifeboat on the Ocean


获得人身是一件很稀有难得的事,这在很多经典中都有相关的各种描述和比喻。但在众多人身之中,有一种更为难得的人身,叫做“暇满人身”,这样的人身尤为珍贵,如同如意宝。不具备这样的人身,就无法修行和解脱。

It is very rare and precious to obtain a human existence, and many Buddhist scriptures contain elaborate explanations and allegories regarding this point. Among all the different kinds of human lives, there is one kind that is especially rare, namely the human life endowed with the freedoms and advantages necessary to practice the Dharma. This kind of human life is especially precious, like a wish-fulfilling jewel. Without this kind of human life, it is impossible to practice the Dharma and attain liberation.

我们经常看上去是很想解脱的,但是暇满人身的内容没有多少人能说得清楚,很显然我们的行为与理想是相悖的。如果得到了珍贵的暇满人身,却没有解脱,也没有为众生做什么,做精神世界的混子,未来只会变得更困苦、更可悲。

We often look like we really want liberation, but there aren’t that many people who can explain clearly what it means to have a human life with the necessary freedoms and advantages, so it’s very clear that our actions and our ideals are in opposition. If we have a precious human life, but we don’t achieve liberation and we don’t do anything for other sentient beings, then we’re just bums hanging around in spiritual circles, and the future will only be more painful and sad.

初心,对于良善的人来讲都是最美好的,也是最难守护的。在修行中有一种情况很常见,最初皈依的时候信心很大,内心清净,但后来由于有了丰富的经历和学识所导致的心理变化,像产生了化学反应一般地困住了内心,分别更多,邪见更重,更加自信地用自己的感官经验判断和评价菩萨、圣者们,这种过患是很可怕的!这值得我们每个人去反思。

As long as someone is kind-hearted, their first aspirations are the best, but the hardest to maintain. There’s a certain situation that often occurs in spiritual practice, and it’s that many people have a lot of faith when they first take refuge, and their minds are pure, but then afterwards when they have rich experience and knowledge it causes a psychological change, like a chemical reaction that overcomes the mind. They have more judgmental thoughts and more deeply entrenched heretical views, and they are more confident using their own sensory experiences to judge and critique the bodhisattvas and sages, and this kind of transgression is really terrifying! This deserves to be reflected upon by each and every one of us.

从那些已经获得精神成就的圣者传记中可以看出,导师的引导和自己的努力二者都非常重要。我们都在说“人生如梦,没有必要执着于短暂的苦乐”的教义,却总在奋力地坚持着轮回的业,总是中断利于来世的修行。如果没有不断地朝着理想努力,崇高的境界最后只会变成自己的妄想而已。

From the biographies of the sages who have attained spiritual achievement, we can see that the teachers’ guidance and one’s own efforts are of equal importance. We are all always saying that “human life is like a dream, there is no need to be attached to transitory suffering and pleasure”, and yet we’re always striving to perpetuate the karma of Samsara, and we’re always abandoning the practices that would benefit us in the next life. If we don’t make the effort to strive continually towards our ideals, then the lofty heights to which we aspire will only prove to be nothing more than our own delusions in the end.

在解脱道上,我们需要的是始终如一的恭敬心、清净心与欢喜心。即使有时感觉造作的疲劳或者无理由的情绪低沉,也要想尽办法净化心灵,提起正念,不被迷惑的幻觉吞噬,激励自己“还要继续前进”。

We must maintain an unchanging mind of reverence, purity, and joy all along the path to liberation. Even if we occasionally feel affected by fatigue or unreasonable depression, we should make every effort to purify our minds and cause right mindfulness to arise, so that we will not be swallowed whole by confusing illusions. Then we can encourage ourselves to continue striving forward.

为了防止自心陷入邪见、诽谤或执着的困境,必须要依止佛经或者上师的教导,如果信心有所增长,尊重因果,对众生更慈悲,这就是最大的功德。除了内心的转变以外,不存在其他的解脱。

To prevent our minds from falling into the trap of wrong views, slander, or attachment, we must rely on the instruction of the sutras or the Guru. If our faith increases and we have respect for the law of karma and become more compassionate towards sentient beings, then this is the greatest merit. There is no other liberation apart from bringing about a change in our own minds.

闻思实修、吃素放生等各种善行,都是帮助我们远离执着与烦恼的方便。从粗大的烦恼,到最细微的所知障的破除,这个过程,即是完整的五道十地。

All kinds of positive actions, such as the threefold practices of study, contemplation and meditation, or being vegetarian and freeing animals from human slaughter, are all skillful means helping us be free from fixations and afflictions. The process of breaking through these obstacles,from the coarse obstacle of afflictions to the finest obstacles to Jnana (obstructions to omniscience), is the entirety of the Five Paths and Ten Grounds.

以下有八种情况,都是听闻和修习佛法的障碍,令身心恒时受苦,没有空闲思维正法:

The following eight conditions are all obstacles to hearing and practicing the Buddhadharma, and they bring our bodies and minds constant suffering, so that we have no time to consider the Dharma:

1:堕入地狱

Falling into the hell realms

地狱中有八寒地狱、八热地狱、近边地狱、孤独地狱等十八个地狱,若投生于地狱,恒时处于强烈的痛苦中,根本无法闻修佛法,更谈不上解脱。

There are altogether eighteen hell realms, including the Eight Hot Hells, the Eight Cold Hells, the Neighboring Hells, and the Isolated Hells. Beings reborn in hell are constantly tormented by intense pain, so they are definitely unable to hear and practice the Dharma, let alone get liberated.

2:转生饿鬼

Being reborn as a hungry preta

饿鬼长相丑陋,饥渴难耐,终日都在忙于寻找饮食,由于恶业的果报所致,吞下的饮食都会变成熊熊烈火。如果转生饿鬼道,就不会有修习佛法的机会。

The pretas have grotesque appearances and suffer from unbearable hunger and thirst. They are busy searching for food all day long, however, due to karmic retribution caused by their past negative actions, whatever they swallow turns into scorching flames. If one is reborn as a preta then they have no opportunity to practice the Buddhadharma.

3:投生旁生

Being reborn as an animal

如果投生为披毛戴角的旁生,恒时遭受被人役使、宰杀以及相互残害的痛苦,愚痴迷惑,无法知言解义,所以也无法修学佛法,难以解脱。

Beings born as non-human animals are continually oppressed by slavery and slaughter inflicted by human beings, or they suffer attacks from other animals, and they are mentally unable to comprehend language and teachings. Therefore they are unable to study the Buddhadharma, and it’s very hard for them to attain liberation.

4:生于边地

Living in the border regions

如果生于没有佛法的地方,恒时行持非法,视杀生为善业,所作所为皆是恶业,多数人死后立即堕入恶趣。

If one lives in a region where the Buddhadharma is unknown, then they might be continually engaged in activities not in accordance with the Dharma, or even regarding killing as good, committing evil in all that they do. Many of them fall into lower realms as soon as they die.

5:转生长寿天

Being reborn as a long-lived deva

长寿天,也称为无想天。转生到长寿天的众生认为,没有任何善恶念的禅定是解脱,他们在无念禅定中可以安住数个阿僧祇劫,一旦引业穷尽时会以邪见之因下堕恶趣。我们在打坐的时候,要为了度化无量无边的众生而发无上殊胜的菩提心,在菩提心的基础上,猛烈祈祷上师三宝和传承祖师们,内心会生起出离心。在菩提心和出离心的基础上,修上师瑜伽、五加行、持咒、闻思等都是正法。这与无念禅定截然不同,所以结果也不同。如果转生长寿天,恒时安住于无念境界,最终会堕入恶趣。

The long-lived devas are also known as the devas who are absorbed in a state of mental blankness. Beings born in this realm believe that a meditative state devoid of all good and bad mental activities is in itself liberation. They remain in such states of concentration for many asankya kalpa (eons) on end, but when their karma has exhausted itself, they are reborn in the lower realms because of their wrong views. When we meditate, we should bring forth unsurpassed bodhicitta in order to save boundless numbers of sentient beings. With bodhicitta as the foundation, we can pray vigorously to the Guru, the Three Jewels and the teachers of the lineage, then the mind of renunciation will arise. When it is based on bodhicitta and renunciation, then practicing Guru yoga, the five preliminary practices, reciting mantras or reading scriptures are all in accord with the Dharma. This is different from meditative states completely devoid of any and all thoughts, so the result is also different. If one is reborn as a long-lived deva, then one will always be in a state of mental blankness, and when it’s over they will fall into the lower realms.

6:执持邪见

Those holding wrong views

对真实正法生不起信解,置身于佛法之外,持有常见、断见,甚至诽谤辱骂佛法的外道者,他们不愿了解和学习佛法,也不会步入解脱道。

Followers of other traditions who have no faith in the true Dharma, holding views which are contrary to, and outside, the teaching of the Buddha, such as sassatavada (Eternalist beliefs / Dualism) or ucchedavada (Nihilist beliefs / Reductionism), perhaps even slandering or maligning the Buddhadharma—unwilling to understand or study the Dharma, such people cannot enter the path of liberation.  

7:佛不出世

Being born in an eon during which no Buddha has appeared

如果出生在暗劫,那么连三宝的名号也听不到,不知善恶,也就不会有修法的机会。

Those born during a dark eon have no opportunity to practice the Dharma because they never even hear of the Three Jewels, and cannot distinguish right from wrong.

8:喑哑之人

Being born severely disabled

对于聋哑、盲人来说,闻法、讲法、修法实在是力所不及,因此自相续无法调顺。而智力障碍、意根愚笨的人无法领悟正法的含义,也无法学习佛法。

Those born deaf and dumb or blind have difficulties listening to the Dharma as well as discussing and practicing it, therefore they cannot tame their mind streams. Those with mental impairments or poor cognitive faculties are also unable to comprehend the teachings and are thus deprived of the opportunity to study and practice the Buddhadharma.

在充满压力和苦恼的生活环境中,只有依靠实修上师的窍诀来渐渐圆满智慧,才能不被世间的幻象左右。如果比起调整内心,更重视于拜见活佛与朝礼圣地,那么修行再久,也不会脱离凡夫的心。很多人在修行上花费了很多时间、金钱、精力,就要用所学的内容对照一下内心,让佛陀的教育融入到自己的生命里,让它们发挥作用。

In a living environment full of pressure and afflictions, the only way not to be overwhelmed by the illusions of the world is to rely on the pith instructions of a Guru who is a real practitioner and gradually perfect your own wisdom. If you put more emphasis on visiting tulku masters or making pilgrimages to sacred places than on taming your own inner mind, then no matter how long you practice you won’t be able to advance beyond the mind of an ordinary person. Many people waste a lot of time, money, and effort in their practice, when what you need to do is use what you’ve studied on your own inner mind and let the teachings of the Buddha be infused into your life, then you can really put them to use.

如果我们甘愿承受在无尽苦海里,头出头没的命运,时间似乎就停止了,我们的状况也不会有什么变化。但是现在遇到了一只由福德力所编织的大船来拯救自己,我们不应该轻易错过。在渡过轮回的大海时,必然会遇到狂风巨浪,只要紧紧地抓住这唯一的救生艇,乘风破浪,生死就可以自己说了算!

If we are willing to endure the fate of bobbing up and down upon the vast endless ocean of suffering, then it’s as if time has stopped and our situation will never change. But if we chance upon a great boat made from the power of merits and virtues coming to save us, we shouldn’t pass it up lightly. As we traverse the vast ocean of Samsara, there are bound to be violent storms and roaring waves, but if you can just hold tightly to this one and only life raft, then you can sail through the wind and waves and take charge over life and death!

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